polluted streams brownfields manure on snow drainage tile discharges

Manure on Snow, the Surge of Contaminants to Lake Erie

In spite of the toxic algae crisis in Lake Erie, which contaminated the City of Toledo's entire drinking water system in August 2014, in Michigan CAFOs continue to be allowed to spread or spray manure on snow and frozen ground. Researchers agree this agricultural practice is one of the worst, because of the high risk of runoff in thaw, in spring, taking excess phosphorus, which feeds toxic algae, to streams. And to Lake Erie.